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Journal April 2010 (Vol 32, No 4)

NOTE: You have already passed this course.
NOTE: This course is no longer valid for accreditation purposes.

The Emerging Role of Wolbachia Species in Heartworm Disease [CE]

1. D. immitis, the filarial nematode that causes heartworm disease, does not infect
2. The infective stage of D. immitis is the ______ stage.
3. _______ are clinical signs of heartworm disease in cats.
4. Wolbachia spp are _______ belonging to the Rickettsiaceae family.
5. In one study, cats infected with D. immitis developed an _____ immune response against WSP.
6. Wolbachia bacteria were isolated in tissue samples taken from the ______ of dogs infected with D. immitis.
7. ________ is not a known adverse effect of treatment for heartworm disease.
8. Wolbachia bacteria are not susceptible to
9. The use of antimicrobial therapy directed against Wolbachia spp in filarial nematode infections, including D. immitis infections, has resulted in
10. The optimal antimicrobial against Wolbachia spp to add to the treatment protocol for cats and dogs with heartworm disease is
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