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Compendium August 2010 (Vol 32, No 8)

Research Recap: Abstracts from Veterinary Therapeutics, Summer 2010, Vol. 11, No. 2

    Antimicrobial Activity of Tulathromycin and 14 Other Antimicrobials Against Virulent Rhodococcus equi In Vitroa

    Carlson KL, Kuskie KR, Chaffin MK, et al.

    This study determined the antimicrobial activity of tulathromycin against Rhodococcus equi in vitro. Ninety-eight virulent isolates of R. equi from equine clinical cases were examined, of which 20 isolates were macrolide resistant. A custom 96-well antimicrobial susceptibility testing plate was used, allowing 14 additional antimicrobials to be tested against R. equi. Isolates were cultured with various concentrations of antimicrobials, and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined. Tulathromycin was found to have poor activity in vitro against R. equi isolates susceptible or resistant to macrolides, with MIC50 and MIC90 values >64 µg/mL for all isolates. MIC values for other macrolides tested were similar to previously published data.

    aThe costs associated with this study were covered by funds from the Link Equine Research Endowment.

    Ex Vivo Viability of Canine and Feline Sarcomas: A Pilot Study

    Green N, Boothe DM, Smith A, et al.

    Assay-based chemotherapeutic protocols are common in human gynecologic oncology, most notably for patients with ovarian or breast cancer. The current study examines ex vivo incubation conditions necessary for the assessment of sarcomatous tumor response to potential chemotherapeutic drugs. Slices of sarcomatous tumors were incubated in one of two culture media. Viability indices were measured and compared across time and between media. Neither medium was sufficient to support the growth of sarcomatous tumor tissue slices based on the indices studied. It is likely that sarcomatous tumors require a different approach for ex vivo assessment than their epithelial counterparts. Our long-term goal is to incubate tumor slices with chemotherapeutic agents to predict the in vivo tumor response based on the maintenance or loss of slice viability within this system.

    Evaluation of the Potential Use of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in the Treatment of Canine Atopic Dermatitis: A Pilot Studyb

    Hall MN, Rosenkrantz WS, Hong JH, et al.

    Stem cells and their potential therapeutic uses in human and veterinary medicine have generated considerable interest. These cells have a number of potentially unique immunologic properties; most notable are their reported regenerative and antiinflammatory capabilities. The aim of this prospective pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of intravenously administered autogenous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) in the treatment of canine atopic dermatitis. AD-MSCs administered intravenously at a dose of 1.3 million cells/kg did not significantly reduce the clinical signs of canine atopic dermatitis or the owner-assessed pruritus level.

    bThis study was sponsored by RNL Biostar, Germantown, MD, and Animal Dermatology Clinic, Tustin, CA.

    Protection Against Feline Leukemia Virus Challenge for At Least 2 Years After Vaccination With an Inactivated Feline Leukemia Virus Vaccinec

    Jirjis FF, Davis T, Lane J, et al.

    Twelve cats were vaccinated at 8 and 11 weeks of age with a commercially available inactivated FeLV vaccine (Nobivac FeLV, Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health). Eleven cats served as age-matched, placebo-vaccinated controls. All cats were kept in isolation for 2 years after vaccination and were then challenged with virulent FeLV to evaluate vaccine efficacy and duration of immunity. Cats were monitored for 12 weeks after challenge for development of persistent viremia using a commercial FeLV p27 ELISA. Persistent viremia developed in all 11 (100%) of the control cats, whereas 10 of 12 (83%) vaccinated cats were fully protected from persistent viremia following challenge. The results demonstrate that the vaccine used in this study protects cats from FeLV-persistent viremia for at least 2 years after vaccination.

    cFunding for this study was provided by Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health, Elkhorn, NE.

    A Noninferiority Clinical Trial Comparing Fluconazole and Ketoconazole in Combination With Cephalexin for the Treatment of Dogs With Malassezia Dermatitisd

    Sickafoose l, Hosgood G, Snook T, et al.

    This double-blinded noninferiority clinical trial evaluated the use of oral fluconazole for the treatment of Malassezia dermatitis in dogs by comparing it with use of an accepted therapeutic agent, ketoconazole. Dogs presenting with Malassezia dermatitis were treated with either fluconazole or ketoconazole in addition to cephalexin for concurrent bacterial dermatitis. Statistically significant improvements in cytologic yeast count, clinical signs associated with Malassezia dermatitis, and pruritus were seen with both antifungal treatments. There was no statistical difference between the treatments with regard to the magnitude of reduction in these parameters. These results suggest that fluconazole is at least as effective as ketoconazole for the treatment of dogs with Malassezia dermatitis.

    dThis study was supported by a grant from the American College of Veterinary Dermatology.

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