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Hepatic Encephalopathy: Etiology, Pathogenesis, and Clinical Signs by Melissa Salgado , DVM, Yonaira Cortes , DVM, DACVECC

1. Which of the following factors is implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE)?
2. Which mechanism does not generate ammonia?
3. Which of the following is not a consequence of hyperammonemia?
4. The “Trojan horse” hypothesis states that that once ammonia interacts with glutamate in astrocytes to form glutamine, the glutamine enters the mitochondria, where it is converted into
5. Which of the following groups of drugs increase GABA receptor activation and should be avoided in a patient with HE?
6. Which of the following statements is false with regard to HE?
7. Which of the following is associated with HE resulting from acute liver disease?
8. Which of the following statements regarding inflammation’s role in hepatic encephalopathy is false?
9. Which of the following statements is false?
10. Altered amino acid metabolism caused by liver dysfunction results in
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