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Journal January 2012 (Vol 34, No 1)

NOTE: You have already passed this course.
NOTE: This course is no longer valid for accreditation purposes.

Central Venous Pressure: Principles, Measurement, and Interpretation by Miryam M. Reems , DVM, DACVECC, Marcel Aumann , Dr. Med. Vet., DACVIM, DACVECC

1. A high CVP reading in conjunction with a large fluctuation of the waveform synchronous with the heartbeat is most indicative of
2. Which of the following does not cause an increase in CVP?
3. Which statement about the CVP waveform is false?
4. Because the relationship between ventricular end-diastolic volume and pressure is curvilinear and may indirectly represent cardiac output and right atrial pressure, which of the following statements is false?
5. CVP is determined by the interaction between cardiac function and venous return, which are in turn influenced by all of the following except
6. CVP measurements are made in reference to atmospheric pressure but are determined by transmural pressure, which may be affected by all of the following except
7. Water manometers may overestimate CVP by
8. Which of the following statements is false?
9. Which of the following statements is false?
10. A cannon a wave represents
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