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Compendium July 2009 (Vol 31, No 7)

Abstract Thoughts — Intussusception After Methiocarb Toxicosis in Dogs

by Joseph Harari, MS, DVM, DACVS

    Intussusception After Methiocarb Toxicosis in Dogs

    Corfield GS, Connor LM, Swindells KL, et al. Intussusception following methiocarb toxicity in three dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2007;18:68-74.

    Methiocarb, a common carbamate molluscicide, causes toxicosis in dogs. This study reports details of three cases involving dogs that ingested slug and snail bait pellets, suffered methiocarb toxicosis, and underwent treatment. The purpose was to report intussusception as a complication and suggest possible risk factors.

    The dogs were an 18-week-old German shepherd mix, a 5-month-old Staffordshire bull terrier, and an 8-month-old German shepherd. Toxicosis was diagnosed on the basis of access, clinical signs, and the presence of blue molluscicide in gastric fluid and feces. Treatments involved intravenous fluids, diazepam, emesis, gastric lavage, enema, activated charcoal, and sorbitol. All the dogs had persistent clinical signs of toxicosis despite initial treatment and attempts to eliminate the remaining toxin. Intussusception was diagnosed within 36 and 24 hours in two dogs and after 18 days of treatment for the toxicosis in the third dog. Laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis. Two dogs recovered after supportive care, enterectomy of the affected bowel, and end-to-end anastomosis.

    Because only three cases were presented, positive identification of the risk factors responsible for intussusception is impossible. However, risk factors discussed included age, incomplete gastrointestinal decontamination, the process of decontamination (using cathartics and anesthetic), and the use of metoclopramide. More detailed epidemiologic studies of methiocarb toxicosis and its association with intussusception are warranted.

    Traumatic Urethral Rupture in Cats: Alignment with a Urethral Catheter

    Meige F, Sarrau S, Autefage A. Management of traumatic urethral rupture in 11 cats using primary alignment with a urethral catheter. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2008;21:76-84.

    This study evaluated an alternative to primary urethral repair, which is complex and may cause strictures, in 11 domestic shorthair cats with urethral disruption caused by urethral catheterization to relieve obstruction (eight cats) or trauma (three cats).

    Retrograde catheterization was achieved in five cats; five others needed cystotomy for catheter placement (one cat was not catheterized because of complete rupture). A modified inside-to-outside technique, which has the advantages of speed, simplicity, and absence of the need to suture catheters, was used for cystotomy. Catheterization lasted 5 to 14 days; stricture occurred in three cats. Postoperative complications involved inadvertent removal of catheters and urine leakage. Maintenance of a closed urine collection system was problematic. (The authors recommend intermittent drainage of a closed catheter.) The outcome was good, with urethral healing, in eight of 10 cats. Strictures can form, but the risk seemed low.

    Based on this study, urethral catheterization is simpler and less invasive than primary repair or urethrostomy for urethral injuries. This procedure was better than retrograde urethrography for diagnosing partial urethral disruption. Because of the risk of infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, cats with indwelling urinary catheters should not be given antibacterial drugs. The suggested maximum duration of catheterization is 7 days, although further studies should confirm this time period.

    Skeletal Histiocytic Sarcoma in Dogs

    Schultz RM, Puchalski SM, Kent M, Moore PF. Skeletal lesions of histiocytic sarcoma in 19 dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2007;48:539-543.

    Localized and disseminated histiocytic sarcoma may differ with regard to outcome, which would make early diagnosis and differentiation important. This retrospective study evaluated clinical and radiographic findings from the medical records of 19 dogs with diagnosed histiocytic sarcoma bone lesions. Signalment, history, physical examination findings, laboratory test results, and radiographic, biopsy, and necropsy findings, including soft tissue masses and spinal cord compression, were analyzed.

    The dogs were divided into two groups: localized disease (four dogs) and disseminated disease (15 dogs). The groups had similar historical, clinical, and laboratory findings: age, breeds affected, and the presence of lameness, aggressive bone lesions (periarticular bones, vertebrae, humerus, and rib), lymph node enlargement, bone lysis, and soft tissue masses. The skeletal sites were similar. Golden retrievers and rottweilers older than 5 years with lameness or neurologic deficits localized to the spinal cord were most commonly represented. All the rottweilers in the study had disseminated disease.

    Localized and disseminated disease could not be differentiated according to historical, clinical, and laboratory findings, but differentiation was possible using imaging and histologic results. Histiocytic sarcoma should be considered as a diagnostic differential in middle-aged to older golden retrievers and rottweilers with lameness or neurologic deficits and aggressive bone lesions on radiographs, especially those with a soft tissue mass.

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