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Compendium August 2006 (Vol 28, No 8)

Abstract Thoughts (August 2006)

by Joseph Harari, MS, DVM, DACVS

    Nielsen C, Pluhar GE: Diagnosis and treatment of hind limb muscle strain injuries in 22 dogs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 18:247-253, 2005.

    Abstract: The clinical features of 22 cases involving hindlimb muscle-strain injuries were described in this retrospective review. The mean age of the dogs was 6 years, and numerous large (mean body weight: 68.2 lb [31 kg]) breeds were represented. The dogs had acute, persistent, or intermittent chronic lameness. Few owners described a specific injury. Most of the dogs had concurrent orthopedic disease affecting the stifle joint, hip joint, or spine and were treated surgically. Clinical signs included pain and tautness during palpation of specific muscles. Lesions (in decreasing frequency) involved the hip adductor, iliopsoas, pectineal, and gracilis muscles. The dogs were treated with exercise restriction, physical therapy, NSAIDs, and a muscle relaxant. Clinical signs resolved in 53% of the dogs; signs recurred in 10 dogs. The authors concluded that muscle-strain injuries are often overlooked either as singular causes of lameness or in association with other orthopedic conditions and warrant attention to reduce patient morbidity.

    Commentary: Contrary to specific muscle-strain injuries in humans, these injuries in dogs are often undetected and involve vague, undiagnosed hindlimb lameness or affect the bones, joints, or spine in patients with known, treatable diseases. Strain injuries are characterized by edema, inflammation, and hemorrhage within the muscle, and imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography may help clinicians confirm their examination findings, especially those from palpation. The data from this article reveal the variety of injuries identified in a university clinical population. The efficacy of the treatments described can be confirmed by future standardized, prospective studies.

    New Methods And Strategies For Monitoring Susceptibility Of Fleas To Current Flea Control Products

    Blagburn BL, Dryden MW, Payne P, et al: New methods and strategies for monitoring susceptibility of fleas to current flea control products. Vet Ther 7(2):86-98, 2006.

    A flea larval bioassay was developed by an international team of scientists to monitor the susceptibility of fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) to imidacloprid (Advantage, Bayer HealthCare). The assay was validated using laboratory and field isolates of C. felis. Flea eggs representing different field isolates of C. felis were collected by veterinarians in the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany. Of the 972 flea isolates obtained during the 5-year study, 768 contained sufficient numbers of eggs to conduct the larval bioassay.

    Key Findings:

    • Greater than 5% survival occurred for only six of the field isolates ­evaluated.
    • Further evaluation and analysis of these isolates demonstrated that they did not differ significantly in their susceptibility to imidacloprid from the reference strains used to develop the assay. Collections of field flea isolates will continue in an attempt to detect and document any change in the susceptibility of field flea populations to imidacloprid.

    Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Cholecystocentesis In Dogs With Extrahepatic Biliary Obstruction And Pancreatitisultrasonographic

    Herman BA, Brawer RS, Murtaugh RJ, Hackner SG: Therapeutic percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis in three dogs with extrahepatic biliary obstruction and pancreatitis. JAVMA 227:1782-1785, 2005.

    Case studies are provided for three dogs with diagnoses of severe pancreatitis and extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO) that underwent treatment with percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis (PUCC). The dogs were castrated males (i.e., a 4-year-old, 26.4-lb Parson Russell terrier; a 4-year-old, 24-lb mixed-breed dog; and a 7-year-old, 22-lb miniature pinscher). All dogs initially had vomiting and hematologic abnormalities (e.g., neutrophilia, leukocytosis) and serum biochemical abnormalities (e.g., increased alkaline phosphatase [ALP], g-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase activities; hyperglycemia; hyperbilirubinemia). A 22-gauge needle was used for two dogs and an 18-gauge needle for one.

    Because medical treatment did not resolve the pancreatitis and EHBO, PUCC was performed, during which viscous bile was aspirated. One dog underwent three PUCC procedures. After PUCC, serum biochemical results were normal except for slightly high ALP activities. Bile leakage occurred in one dog. The use of a 22-gauge needle may facilitate bile aspiration but increase the risk for bile leakage.

    Key Findings:

    • PUCC (gallbladder decompression) may benefit some dogs with EHBO secondary to pancreatitis when obstruction does not resolve spontaneously.
    • Surgery, which may exacerbate pancreatitis and carry other risks, may thus be avoided or delayed.
    • The small number of dogs prevents drawing general conclusions; therefore, further study is warranted.

    1. Nielsen C, Pluhar GE: Diagnosis and treatment of hind limb muscle strain injuries in 22 dogs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 18:247-253, 2005.

    2. Blagburn BL, Dryden MW, Payne P, et al: New methods and strategies for monitoring susceptibility of fleas to current flea control products. Vet Ther 7(2):86-98, 2006.

    3. Herman BA, Brawer RS, Murtaugh RJ, Hackner SG: Therapeutic percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis in three dogs with extrahepatic biliary obstruction and pancreatitis. JAVMA 227:1782-1785, 2005.

    References »

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